Investments and Fair Value of Financial Instruments
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Investments and Fair Value of Financial Instruments||
Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. In determining fair value, the Company often utilizes certain assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, including assumptions about risk and/or the risks inherent in the inputs to the valuation technique. These inputs can be readily observable, market corroborated, or developed by the Company. The fair value hierarchy ranks the quality and reliability of the information used to determine fair values. Financial assets and liabilities carried at fair value are classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1 - Valued based on quoted prices at the measurement date for identical assets or liabilities trading in active markets. Financial instruments in this category generally include actively traded equity securities.
Level 2 - Valued based on (a) quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; (b) quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; (c) inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability; or (d) from market corroborated inputs. Financial instruments in this category include certain corporate equities that are not actively traded or are otherwise restricted.
Level 3 - Valued based on valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs is not readily observable. Included in this category are certain corporate debt instruments, certain private equity investments, and certain commitments and guarantees.
Investments – Related Parties at Fair Value:
A reconciliation of Level 3 assets is as follows:
It had been the Company’s policy to distribute part or all of the warrants CAP earned, through serving as placement agent on various private placement offerings for a related but independent entity under common management, to registered representatives or other employees who provided investment banking services. The Company recorded $19,392 of compensation expense (fair value) related to these distributed warrants for the year ended December 31, 2016. There was no compensation expense recorded related to distributed warrants for the year ended December 31, 2017. Warrants retained by the Company are marked-to-market at each reporting date using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Unrealized losses on affiliate warrants of $16,287 were recorded during the year ended December 31, 2017 and $92,825 for the year ended December 31, 2016 are included in revenues on the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
The fair value of the warrants was determined based on the Black-Scholes option pricing model, which requires the input of highly subjective assumptions, including the expected share price volatility. Given that such shares were not publicly-traded, the Company developed an expected volatility figure based on a review of the historical volatilities, over a period of time, of similarly positioned public companies within the industry.
The Company’s short term financial instruments include cash, accounts receivable, advances and loans to employees, accounts payable, accrued expenses, other liabilities, loans payable and debt obligations. The carrying value of these instruments approximate fair value, as they bear terms and conditions comparable to market, for obligations with similar terms and maturities.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef